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Burj Al Arab – Dubai – Main Facade
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Image by Arch_Sam
Burj Al Arab (Arabic: برج العرب‎,Tower of the Arabs) is a luxury hotel located in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It has been called "The world’s only 7 star Hotel" and is the third tallest hotel in the world; however, 39% of its total height is made up of non-occupiable space. Burj Al Arab stands on an artificial island 280 m (920 ft) from Jumeirah beach and is connected to the mainland by a private curving bridge. The shape of the structure is designed to mimic the sail of a ship. It has a helipad near the roof at a height of 210 m (689 ft) above ground.

Design and construction
Burj Al Arab was designed by architect Tom Wright of WKK Architects. The design and construction were managed by Canadian engineer Rick Gregory of WS Atkins. Construction of the Island began in 1994. It built to resemble the sail of a dhow, a type of Arabian vessel. Two "wings" spread in a V to form a vast "mast", while the space between them is enclosed in a massive atrium. The architect Tom Wright said "The client wanted a building that would become an iconic or symbolic statement for Dubai; this is very similar to Sydney with its Opera House, London with Big Ben, or Paris with the Eiffel Tower. It needed to be a building that would become synonymous with the name of the country."

Atkins. Fletcher Construction from New Zealand was the lead joint venture partner in the initial stages of pre-construction and construction. The hotel was built by South African construction contractor Murray & Roberts and Al Habtoor Engineering.

The building opened in December 1999.

Site
The beachfront area where Burj Al Arab and Jumeirah Beach Hotel are located was previously called Chicago Beach. The hotel is located on an island of reclaimed land 280 meters offshore of the beach of the former Chicago Beach Hotel. The locale’s name had its origins in the Chicago Bridge & Iron Company which at one time welded giant floating oil storage tanks, known locally as Kazzans on the site.

The old name persisted after the old Hotel was demolished in 1997. Dubai Chicago Beach Hotel remained as the Public Project Name for the construction phase of Burj Al Arab Hotel until Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum announced the new name.

Features
Several features of the hotel required complex engineering feats to achieve. The hotel rests on an artificial island constructed 280 m (920 ft) offshore. To secure a foundation, the builders drove 230 forty-meter-long (130 ft) concrete piles into the sand.[16]

Engineers created a ground/surface layer of large rocks, which is circled with a concrete honeycomb pattern, which serves to protect the foundation from erosion. It took three years to reclaim the land from the sea, while it took fewer than three years to construct the building itself. The building contains over 70,000 m3 (92,000 cu yd) of concrete and 9,000 tons of steel.

Inside the building, the atrium is 180 m (590 ft) tall.

Burj Al Arab is the world’s third tallest hotel (not including buildings with mixed use). The structure of the Rose Rayhaan, also in Dubai, is 11 m (36 ft) taller than Burj Al Arab.

Rooms and suites
The hotel is managed by the Jumeirah Group. Despite its size, Burj Al Arab holds only 28 double-story floors which accommodate 202 bedroom suites. The smallest suite occupies an area of 169 m2 (1,820 sq ft), the largest covers 780 m2 (8,400 sq ft).

Suites feature design details that juxtapose east and west. White columns show great influence.[clarification needed] Bathrooms are accented by mosaic tile patterns.[citation needed]

The Royal Suite, billed at US,716 per night, is listed at number 12 on World’s 15 most expensive hotel suites compiled by CNN Go in 2012.

The Burj Al Arab is very popular with the Chinese market, which made up 25 percent of all bookings at the hotel in 2011 and 2012.

Restaurants
Al Muntaha (Arabic for "Highest" or "Ultimate"), is located 200 m (660 ft) above the Persian Gulf, offering a view of Dubai. It is supported by a full cantilever that extends 27 m (89 ft) from either side of the mast, and is accessed to a panoramic elevator.

Al Mahara ("Oyster"), which is accessed via a simulated submarine voyage, features a large seawater aquarium, holding roughly 990,000 L (260,000 US gal) of water. The wall of the tank, made of acrylic glass in order to withstand the water pressure, is about 18 cm (7.1 in) thick.

Rating
While the hotel is frequently described as "the world’s only seven-Star hotel", the hotel management claims to never have done that themselves. In the words of a Jumeirah Group spokesperson: "There’s not a lot we can do to stop it. We’re not encouraging the use of the term. We’ve never used it in our advertising." According to the group, the "Seven-Star" notion was brought to being by a British journalist who visited the hotel on a pre-opening press trip. The journalist "described Burj al Arab in her article as above and beyond anything she had ever seen and called it a seven-star hotel.

Reception
Reviews by architecture critics
Burj Al Arab has attracted criticism as well "a contradiction of sorts, considering how well-designed and impressive the construction ultimately proves to be." The contradiction here seems to be related to the hotel’s decor. "This extraordinary investment in state-of-the-art construction technology stretches the limits of the ambitious urban imagination in an exercise that is largely due to the power of excessive wealth." Another critic includes negative critiques for the city of Dubai as well: "both the hotel and the city, after all, are monuments to the triumph of money over practicality. Both elevate style over substance." Yet another: "Emulating the quality of palatial interiors, in an expression of wealth for the mainstream, a theater of opulence is created in Burj Al Arab … The result is a baroque effect"

Public relations stunts

Several events have taken place on the helipad 210 m (689 ft) above ground to attract media attention. These include :

2004: Tiger Woods teeing off
2005: Andre Agassi and Roger Federer playing tennis
2011: Golfer Rory McIlroy performing a bunker shot.
2013: Heli-lift of Aston Martin Vanquish.
2013: David Coulthard performing donuts in a Formula 1 racecar

Image from page 24 of “Modern bath rooms : with useful information and a number of valuable suggestions about plumbing for home builders or those about to remodel their present dwellings” (1912)
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Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: cu31924016062873
Title: Modern bath rooms : with useful information and a number of valuable suggestions about plumbing for home builders or those about to remodel their present dwellings
Year: 1912 (1910s)
Authors: Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company
Subjects: Bathrooms Bathrooms Plumbing
Publisher: Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.A. : Standard Sanitary Mfg. Co.
Contributing Library: Cornell University Library
Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

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About This Book: Catalog Entry
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Text Appearing Before Image:
Bath, 5 ft., and Shower, Plate P2330S …. $] 18.id Foot Bath, Plate P 2582 ) 36.(1(1 Lavatory, Plate P 3 720 G . . 54 on Closet, Plate P7552 . . . 46.00 Total 4.50 NOTE: —Foot Bath aa illustrated and priced furiiialinlregularly with one coal of paint on outside. See page 21 for exterior Hnisli aiuldecorations. 1 ® V A ,^ -U—L ]o [£> o: -J 1 1 Floor Plan—Design P 85 18

Text Appearing After Image:
Modern Batk Room—Design P 90 THIS room is tiled with 6 x 6-inch dull glaze wall tile of two tones of green. The floor tile is white unglazed ceramic.The green tile makes a splendid background for the porcelain enameled fixtures. The room is beautiful as well asextremely practicable.The leading feature is the enameled all over corner bath with concealed fittings. The pilaster was especiallyconstructed to take care of the bath fittings and to provide a place for towels, clothes chute to laundry, and a recessmedicine cabinet. Where an elaborate equipment is desired the above arrangement is suggested. The graceful Arcadia Lavatory onpedestal, the shower and the foot bath, make an unusually complete and artistic bath room, at a cost that is reasonableconsidering the class of fixtures shown.

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

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